The Blood Service is responsible for the blood donation being safe both for the patient and donor. Nurses working at the Blood Service are competent health care professionals and they have been thoroughly trained to their work at the Blood Service.
The needles used for taking blood samples and for blood collection, and any other supplies used are always disposable. Finger-prick samples are taken using a safety lancet that only functions once, and venous blood samples are taken using a disposable safety needle.
The blood bag set used for blood donation is specifically developed for the purpose. The set consists of a safety needle, a sample pouch, a blood collection bag and a combination of bags used in blood product manufacturing.
When the blood collection process ends, the blood collection tube is sealed off from the bag and the needle is withdrawn from the vein and retracted directly into a safety shield, where it locks in and can no longer be exposed.
Used needles are disposed of immediately into their appropriate containers.
The invitation is a reminder to you to come and donate blood but it may also mean that there is a bigger need than normal for donors from your blood group at the moment. Since our system only allows us to send invitations to the same people at specific intervals, we may not be able to remind you of blood donation as often as the situation would require. Please follow the blood supply situation on our website and come to donate at least when invited. Read more about invitation messages.
You have a right to know what has been entered in the Blood Service registry with regards to yourself. You can request your register data in connection with the donation if you have donated blood before. You can also send us a written and signed request. Please enter your personal identity code in the letter.
We will only contact you if the test results suggest an infection. You should never come to donate blood in order to have your blood tested. Also, you should not donate blood if you suspect you may have been infected. Although the blood is already infectious, a recent infection is not visible in tests.
Before taking a long flight, blood donors need to restore their fluid balance. Therefore a long (such as an intercontinental) flight cannot be recommended within less than 24 hours from blood donation. Airlines and aviation organisations often have much stricter rules than this concerning the air crew.
Women attempting to become pregnant are advised to avoid blood donation, since they should keep up a good haemoglobin level. However, donating blood once in early pregnancy does not constitute a risk, and blood donation does not increase the risk of miscarriage.
The Blood Service is an independent, non-profit unit of the Finnish Red Cross. We cover the costs of our operations and their development by selling cell and blood products and expert services to the Finnish healthcare system. The Blood Service is not supported by government funds or other external sources (neither FRC), except for grants and subsidies for research projects.
In 2016, the Blood Service had a turnover of more than €60 million (2016: €61.3 million) and a net profit for the financial period of €4.2
million. Any financial surplus is not shared but rather used to ensure the continuation and development of activities. The Blood Service’s financial stability is useful for healthcare and society in general, as it allows the organisation to focus on the development of new therapies and research work and to keep the price development of blood products moderate. You can read more about The Blood Service’s finances from our annual report.
Donated whole blood is divided into three parts. It is separated into red cells, platelets and plasma. Red cell and platelet products are actual blood products. They are finished at the Blood Service and used for the treatment of patients in Finland.
On occasion the Blood Service is contacted by blood services in other countries, for example in situations in which the patient needs red cells from a rare blood group. If a suitable blood product is found and delivery does not threaten the blood supply in Finland, the product can be delivered abroad. Isolated blood products are delivered abroad once or twice a year, on average.
The plasma separated from the whole blood is used for raw material in plasma-derived medicinal products. These products cannot be reprocessed further in Finland. Thus, the Blood Service sells the plasma abroad to its foreign partners who process the plasma at their fractionation facilities and manufacture it into plasma-derived medicinal products for the treatment of patients. Hospitals purchase plasma-derived medicinal products from different manufacturers according to need. The Blood Service is a distributor of many plasma-derived medicinal products in Finland. Finnish plasma is carefully and effectively used for the benefit of patients.
Since a recent virus infection is not visible in tests, you should never donate blood if you suspect you may have contracted HIV or hepatitis. By selecting donors carefully, the Blood Service aims to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases with the donated blood to the patient.
Some sexually transmitted infections are also transmitted through blood, which is why sexual behaviour has an impact on blood donation. A new sex partner prevents donation for four months, even if a condom has been used. Male homosexual relations cause a twelve-month ban on donating blood.
If you or your partner has paid for or received payment for sex, you will be barred from donating blood for twelve months. If your sex partner uses intravenous drugs or pharmaceutical products without a doctor's prescription, you cannot donate blood.
Travelling is often related to the risk of infection. For example, infectious hepatitis and parasite infections that are rare in the Nordic countries are found in Southern Europe. Short-term travelling in Europe has no impact on blood donation, however.
Travelling in areas where malaria is endemic and prophylactic medication for malaria prevent blood donation for six months. The Blood Service considers regions where antimalarial drugs are not recommended to short-term travellers as malarious areas.
The donor must have been a resident in the EU or EFTA or Nordic countries for the past three months.
A bag of blood fills up in approximately five to ten minutes All in all, you should reserve from 30 minutes to an hour for the donation and coffee afterwards. In other words, donating blood is a really quick way to help and even save another person's life!
Approximately half a litre of whole blood is donated in one donation. The minimum interval between whole blood donations is 61 days for men and 91 days for women. With regard to the donation of plasma and platelets, the donation interval is shorter because the red cells are returned to the donor's circulation. Read more about different ways to donate blood.
The volume of blood reserved for surgery is affected by the difficulty and scope of the operation. For example, in a bypass operation or hip replacement surgery, patients usually need two to three bags of red cells. When possible, bleeding is always avoided in surgery. Also, blood is not given nowadays, if it is not really necessary. For this reason, many surgical operations (e.g. appendectomy, endoscopy of the knee) do not require blood transfusion at all. Sometimes, though, the patient is given ample volumes of blood. For example in a liver transplant operation, tens of litres of blood may be required. Situations such as these are rare, however.
Blood volume will be replaced within a few hours and can be speeded up by
drinking adequately on the day of the donation. The red cell count will be the
same in approximately three months. Red cells live for approximately 120 days or
four months and regenerate constantly, regardless of blood donation. Blood iron
concentration recovers in a couple of months.
Cholesterol drugs (e.g. statins) do not prevent blood donation any more if the disease itself is not an obstacle to donation. Also antihypertensives do not necessarily prevent donation. There is a list of the most common matters that affect donation on the Can you donate blood? page.
The human form of BSE or 'mad cow disease', vCJD, can be transmitted even through the blood of an asymptomatic person. There have been no cases of vCJD reported in Finland, but approximately 150 cases of human vCJD have been found in the British Isles. Since the risk of vCJD is related to long-term living in the Britain in particular, all Western countries have restricted blood donation from those who have lived in the British Isles. People who spent over six months in the British Isles between the years 1980 and 1996 are barred from donating blood. This restriction is not likely to be lifted in the near future.
The Blood Service is responsible for the donation being safe both for the donor and patient.
Blood donation is safe and rarely causes any harm for a healthy person. The health questionnaire and interview aim to confirm that the donation is safe for the donor. Blood donation may sometimes be related to some temporary symptoms or discomforts, mainly nausea or bruises. All blood donors are insured against adverse effects or accidents caused by blood donation. Because needles and other equipment used for the blood collection are always disposable, you cannot be infected via blood donation.
The most important thing for the patient receiving the blood is that the blood donor is healthy. Because only a small portion of pathogens can be tested, the careful selection of donors is crucial for the safety of the patient. In addition to the measurement of haemoglobin and the determination of blood group, the blood samples taken in connection with donation are tested for the most important blood-borne infections (HIV, hepatitis A, B and C, syphilis). However, if the donor has been infected very recently, this may not be visible in the laboratory tests and causes a small risk to the patient's safety. The purpose of different-length waiting periods before donation is to prevent donation during this window period. However, the microbe safety of products can never be perfect.
Up to now, there have been enough blood donors in Finland. New donors are constantly needed, however, because some donors have to stop donating due to illness or after turning 71, for example.
Nearly 1,000 bags of blood are needed every day. The division of blood groups in donors and patients is the same so we need donors from all blood groups. There can be a shortage of blood even in the most common blood group.
For the time being, no artificial blood has been invented that could replace donated blood. Research is being conducted to develop suitable artificial oxygen transporters (task of the red cells) but it will take a long time before these products are in routine use. It is highly unlikely that all the cells in the blood will ever be artificially replaced.
Haemoglobin is a protein in the red cells that contains iron. It caters for the transportation of oxygen in our body. Haemoglobin binds oxygen to itself in the pulmonary circulation and then releases it in the tissues (brain and muscles, for example).
Blood can be donated if the blood haemoglobin concentration is 125–175 g/l for women and 135–195 g/l for men. Donating blood lowers the haemoglobin concentration by approximately 10 g/l.
If the haemoglobin concentration is lower, blood donation could render the donor temporarily anaemic. If the blood is too “thick” it is not readily given to patients. A very high haemoglobin concentration can also be caused by a disease. This is why a donor candidate like this will be asked to see a doctor for more specific examinations.
If you are a first-time donor, rest for a while on the donation bed after the blood collection. Standing still immediately after the donation is not recommended because it may make you feel faint. It is better to either sit down or stay moving. You can avoid the formation of a bruise by bending your arm and applying firm pressure for a few minutes immediately after the donation. Leave the dressing on your arm in place for at least two hours after the donation, and avoid straining the arm the same day.
Donors are offered tea, coffee, juice and snacks. As long as you remember to drink approximately half a litre more of fluids than you normally do, the fluid you have lost during donation will be replaced in approximately 24 hours. We recommend that you refrain from heavy physical exercise or having a sauna on the day of donation so that you do not lose more fluids in the form of perspiration. You can exercise normally the next day, but should avoid strenuous sports for a few days, at least if this is the first time you donate blood. It might take a few weeks for your maximum performance to return – something you may wish to consider if you are planning on taking part in a sports competition or similar heavy physical exercise.
If you develop a fever within a week of the donation or you are diagnosed with a serious illness at any time after the donation, you should notify the Blood Service.
In the donor registry, the unique identifier used for blood donors is always the Finnish personal identity code. On the basis of the last digit of the personal identity code, Finland only uses male or female as alternatives for specifying the gender.
In blood donation, gender division into males and females is justified, since due to differences in male and female physiology, the sexes differ in terms of, for example, haemoglobin reference values, and thus the haemoglobin value limits set for blood donation are also different for men and women. It is not possible to set any haemoglobin reference values and, therefore, limits for blood donation for other genders, or for those who do not want to have their gender defined.
The Blood Service uses the gender based on the donor’s official personal identity code. If the personal identity code is changed after a sex change operation, the person's gender is changed also in the donor registry.
It is true that haemoglobin does not give a full picture about blood donors iron reserves, and indeed plenty of attention has been paid to blood donors’ iron reserves in recent years in Europe, with research results published in Denmark and England, for example. Tens of thousands of donors have taken part in the research.
Blood donors’ quality of life does not seem to be dependent on their ferritin values. Even if you donate blood regularly, your quality of life or adverse symptoms related to donating will not increase. That is, there does not seem to be any change in quality of life or symptoms even if the ferritin levels became or remain lower.
The results of the above-mentioned large surveys seem to be somewhat different from was to be expected on the basis of previous findings. Previously it was thought that low ferritin levels would reduce quality of life considerably. However, this did not happen to blood donors.
Ferritin measurements involve various inaccuracies and the reading does not tell everything about iron reserves, and the limit between normal iron levels and deficiency is under a lively debate. International iron experts hold the view that more modern research is required on limit values.
An iron and health survey, FinDonor 10 000, has been in progress in Finland among blood donors. Samples are no longer taken, and the results should be published in late 2018.
Blood Service takes care of blood donors in risk groups (all those who give blood frequently, and young women) by giving them iron tablets. Men and women also have different minimum intervals between donations. It is however possible that in future we will offer ferritin measurements or other iron measurements for those in iron deficiency risk groups. Before introducing any new measurements, we need more information about their suitability to blood donors.
Not allowing men who have sex with other men to donate blood has been criticised, and has even been considered discriminatory. Many have been surprised by the Blood Service’s stringent policy concerning male-to-male sexual contact.
It should be borne in mind that our policies restricting blood donorship with regard to sexual behaviour are not intended as a criticism or judgement of any person or group, but are designed to ensure the safety of patients receiving blood components. The twelve-month waiting period regarding male-to-male sexual contact that is valid in accordance with the current official regulation is based on the epidemiological situation in Finland. Based on infection statistics, male homosexual relations still pose a much higher risk of HIV infection than heterosexual relations.
The Finnish Red Cross Blood Service (FRCBS) is responsible for ensuring the safety and well-being of the donor as well as the patient. Every patient is entitled to receive safe blood components. Blood safety is based on the careful selection of donors and donor blood testing. Furthermore, despite blood screening tests, the careful selection of donors continues to be important, because even the most sensitive tests are unable to detect new infections.
In its operations, the Finnish Red Cross Blood Service (FRCBS) adheres to the current legislation and official regulations. Fimea renewed its official regulations in December 2013. Statement of the Parliamentary Ombudsman regarding discrimination in 2008.
In Finland, blood donation has always been based on voluntary, unpaid activity and these factors still form the basis of safe blood transfusions. If compensation were to be paid for blood, it might also attract people who are not motivated to help others. Some might leave crucial matters out of the health questionnaire and the interview. The legislation regarding blood service operations in Finland prohibits payment for blood donation.
For the safety of the blood products, reliable identification of the donors is crucial. Blood donors must be able to be identified for each donation without the possibility for error, as specified in the EU directive. According to the legislation regarding blood service operations, the Blood Service must be able to trace the blood products prepared from each bag of blood and the data on the person whose blood was used for 30 years. Tracing the contact details of blood donors is only possible with the help of personal identity codes. This is why you always need to have a photo ID with a Finnish identity code with you when you come to donate blood.
Blood donors receive their blood donor card following their second donation, approximately two months after the donation. The card includes the blood group and donor number and it is intended to remind the donor of donating and his or her own blood group. A blood donor card cannot be used to confirm the donor's identity.
The human body contains approximately five litres of blood. For safety reasons, the blood extracted for a donation, which totals around half a litre, may not exceed 10% of the total blood in the body. The amount of blood in the body depends on your body weight, and for those weighing under 50 kg it is so small that donating increases the risk of post-donation complications such as faintness, nausea or dizziness. The same weight limit is given in many international recommendations and is mentioned in the European Blood Directive, with which all Member States must comply.